Digital Tbucket Tank (DTT)

How heavy can a graviton be?

Scientists are trying to determine the properties of  gravitons to determine - of a hypothetical particle, the one gravitational interaction exercises in an im Journal of High Energy Astrophysics In their published work, Prof. Marek Biesiada and colleagues found a new constraint on the mass of the galaxy from an analysis of 12 galaxy clusters gravitons derived. It is seven orders of magnitude stronger than the limitations resulting from the observations of the  Gravitational waves result.

General Relativity (GRT) changed our ideas about gravity. After the ART curves matter space-time, and all objects move in this curved space-time along specific paths that geodesists be named, provided they are not influenced by other, non-gravitational interactions. Reproduced for not very large curvatures of space-time and small velocities compared to the speed of light Einstein's theory Newton's law of universal gravitation, which we still successfully use to explain the motion of planets or stars in Galaxies to describe.

We know that the other three fundamental interactions - the electromagnetic interaction with long range as well as the weak and the strong interactionthat control matter at the subatomic level - are quantum mechanical in nature. In the quantum description An interaction involves the exchange of the particle (boson) that carries it. For electromagnetism, this is the photon - a light particle, a quantum of the electromagnetic wave. For the strong and the weak interaction, it is the gluons or bosons Z and W. For more than a hundred years, physicists have been trying to universal gravity in the same way and look for a quantum theory of Gravitation. In analogy to other interactions, a hypothetical gravitational carrier particle would be the so-called graviton. Because of the infinite range of gravitational interaction, which decreases with the square of distance, that would have to be Graviton - like the photon - be massless. However, these are only theoretical predictions that need to be verified experimentally.

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The most precise measurement of the mass of the W boson deviates from the standard model

After 10 years of analysis and multiple validation, researchers of the CDF collaborative project led by the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) announced that they have the most accurate measurements of the mass of the W bosons, the bearer of one of the four fundamental physical interactions. The results suggest that the standard model should be improved or extended.

We know the four basic physical interactions: Gravitation, weakness, electromagnetic and strong interaction. The w-Boson is the carrier of the weak interaction. Based on data from Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF), the scientists at Fermilab have determined the mass of the W boson with an accuracy of 0,01%. The measurement is twice as accurate as before. Once established, scientists used the new value to test the standard model.

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Webb has reached its destination and entered its intended orbit

After a month's journey, this is it James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) straight into orbit around the Lagrange point L2 occurred. Over the next five months, Webb will be prepared for operations, with scientific research due to begin in June

The mirrors and scientific instruments of Webb have not yet reached the required stable operating temperature. You still need to cool down a bit. And they started to cool down, and very quickly, as soon as the telescope saw the heat shield unrolled. However, this process is not left to nature alone. It is tightly controlled by placing electrically heated strips at strategic points on the telescope. Thanks to this it was possible both the uniform shrinkage throughout telescopic structure both to control and to ensure that the moisture absorbed by the earth evaporates and does not freeze to the optics or sensors, which could hamper scientific research.

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The biggest launch in history and the most important in 30 years, the James Webb Space Telescope launches today

An Ariane 5 rocket is due to launch between 13.20:13.52 and XNUMX:XNUMX p.m. German time today James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) take off. This will be the largest scientific instrument ever put into space by humans and the most important in the 31 years since the Hubble telescope was launched. Contrary to popular belief, the Webb telescope is not intended to be a replacement for Hubble, but rather a supplement. Scientists from all over the world have great expectations of the observatory, its structure and the NASA the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency are also involved.

The launch of the extraordinary telescope can be seen live on the YouTube channel of NASA be followed.

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Gravitational waves can help explain the asymmetry between matter and antimatter

People, earth or stars came into being because more in the first second of the universe's existence matter as a Antimatter was produced. This asymmetry was extremely small. For every 10 billion particles of antimatter there are 10 billion + 1 particles of matter. This minimal imbalance led to the creation of the material universe, a phenomenon that modern physics cannot explain.

Because from the theory it follows that exactly the same number of matter and antimatter particles must have arisen. A group of theoretical Physiker has determined that it cannot be ruled out that we are able to produce non-optical solitons - Q-balls - to discover, and that their discovery would enable us to answer the question of why more matter than antimatter arose after the Big Bang.

Physicists currently assume that the asymmetry of matter and Antimatter formed in the first second after the Big Bang and that the emerging universe rapidly increased in size during this time. However, verifying the theory of cosmological inflation is extremely difficult. To test them, we would have to have huge ones particle Accelerator and supply them with more energy than we can generate.

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Molecular light transformer: seeing what you couldn't see before

Researchers from several European universities and the Chinese Wuhan Institute of Technology have developed a new method to detect light in the deep infrared range by using it frequency convert into that of visible light. The device can see the "field of view" of sensitive detectors for visible light up into the Infrared range expand. The discovery, described as groundbreaking, was made in the magazine Science published.

Frequency changeover is not an easy task. Because of the Conservation of energy the frequency of light is a fundamental property that cannot easily be changed by reflecting light off a surface or directing it through a material. At lower frequencies, the energy transported by light is insufficient to generate the Photoreceptors to activate in our eyes and in many sensors, which is a problem, since a lot takes place in the frequency range below 100 THz, ie in the mid and far infrared. For example, a body with a surface temperature of 20 ° C emits infrared light with frequencies of up to 10 THz, which can be "seen" with the help of thermal imaging. In addition, chemical and biological substances have pronounced absorption bands in the mid-infrared range, which means that we can use them with the help of the infraredspectroscopy identify non-destructively.

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Don't galaxies need dark matter? Growing gap between theory and observation

An international team of researchers led by scientists from the Netherlands reports that they are in the Galaxy AGC 114905 found no traces of dark matter. It is now widely accepted that galaxies can only exist thanks to dark matter, the interaction of which holds them together.

Two years ago, Pavel Mancera Piña and his team from the University of Groningen reported that they had found six galaxies with little or no dark matter. At that time they were told by their colleagues that they had better look, then they would find out that they had to be there. Now, after 40 hours of observation with the Very Large Array (VLA), the scientists confirmed what they had previously established - the existence of galaxies without dark matter.

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One who rules them all. Physicists simplified the architecture of a photonic quantum computer

Modern quantum computers are very complex devices that are difficult to build, difficult to scale and require extremely low temperatures to operate. For this reason, scientists have long been interested in optical quantum computers. Photons can easily transmit information, and a photonic quantum computer could work at room temperature. The problem, however, is that while you know how to handle individual Quantum logic gates for photons, but creating a large number of gates and connecting them in such a way that complex calculations can be made is a major challenge.

However, an optical quantum computer could have a simpler architecture, argue researchers at Stanford University in Optics. They suggest a single atom with the help of a lasers to manipulate, which in turn - with the help of the phenomenon of quantum teleportation - changes the state of a photon. Such an atom can be reset and in several Quantum gates can be used so that there is no need to build different physical gates, which in turn will greatly simplify the architecture of a quantum computer.

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Deformed nuclei are doubly magical. Scientists have found the missing mass of zirconium-80

Scientist of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) and the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) at Michigan State University have solved the mystery of the missing mass of zirconium-80, a puzzle they have come across themselves. The experiments carried out at the NSCL have shown that the core of Zirconium-80containing 40 protons and 40 neutrons is much lighter than it should be. The theorists at FRIB have now carried out calculations that provide answers to the question of what happens to the missing mass.

The relationship between theorists and experimental physicists is like a coordinated dance, says lead author of the paper published in Nature Physics, Alec Hamaker. Sometimes it is the theorists who lead the way and show something before experimental discovery, and sometimes it is the experimenters discover something that the theorists did not expect, adds Ryan Ringle.

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