Digital Tbucket Tank (DTT)

Science tank

Welcome to our “Science Tank” section. In this area of ​​the website, we deal with relevant discoveries from the world of science (physics, mathematics, computer science, medicine and many more) in an interdisciplinary manner. We publish important achievements from around the world with a special focus on the scientific environment in Göttingen. Have fun and stay curious.     

Blood cells are made a little differently than you might think. This could have implications for the fight against cancer

blood cells form differently than previously thought, researchers at Boston Children's Hospital report in Nature. In studies on mice, they have shown that such cells are not made of one, but of two kinds of progenitor cells are formed. This in turn can be of enormous importance for the treatment of blood cancer, for bone marrow transplants and for the development of immunology.

So far it has been assumed that most of our blood originates from a small number of cells that become blood stem cells, also known as hematopoietic stem cells. To our astonishment, we discovered that there is a second group of progenitor cells that are not derived from stem cells. It is they who make up most of the blood in our body from fetus to early adulthood, after which their contribution to blood formation decreases," says senior physician Fernando Camargo.

The newly discovered cells are embryonic multipotent progenitor cells. The researchers are now examining whether their discovery, which they made in mice, can also be applied to humans. If this is the case, it could help develop methods of boosting the immune system in older people, new insights into blood cancers, especially in children, gain or improved methods for bone marrow transplant to allow.

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Knowing how information is transmitted in the brain will help treat neurodegenerative diseases

When scientists began in the early 20th century, the Brain activity using electrodes, they noticed signals they called "brain waves." Since then they have been the subject of intensive research. We know that waves are a manifestation of synchronized neuronal activity and that changes in wave intensity indicate decreasing or increasing activity of groups of Neurons represent. The question is whether and how these waves are involved in the transmission of information.

That question was answered by Tal Dalal, a PhD student at Bar-Ilan University's Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center. From a paper published in Cell Reports, researchers found that the degree of synchronization of the brainwaves in the field of information transmission have changed. They then examined how this affected the transmission of the information and how it was understood by the area of ​​the brain that it reached.

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Detect cancer in a drop of blood

A group of researchers led by Ms. Cho Yoon-kyoung from the Institute of Basic Research (IBS) in Korea has one biosensor developed by analyzing a drop of blood cancer can recognize. The chip consists of nanoporous gold electrodes. The researchers named the development process SEEDING, which is an English acronym for the technique - "surfactant electrochemical etching and deposition process for the growth of nanostructures and nanopores".


Tests of the new biosensor have confirmed that it enables rapid detection of prostate cancer in patients by analyzing blood and urine samples. This is made possible by detecting a specific type of protein associated with cancer-causing exosomes. The method is much faster and more convenient than previously known methods of sample analysis, which require separation and dilution of biomarkers, which is usually done in large medical facilities or laboratories.

 Image source: The Korea Herald

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Quantum memristor ushers in era of neuromorphic quantum architecture

Researchers from Austria and Italy have one "Quantum Memristor" that is capable of coherent quantum information in the form of a superposition of single photons. Such a device could form the basis of a quantum version of the neuromorphic architecture designed to mimic the way the human brain works.


memristor is the fourth basic type of electronic component. We have known about the resistor, the capacitor and the inductor for a long time. In 1971, Professor Leon Chua of California hypothesized that there might be a fourth element that he memristor named. Such a device was developed almost 40 years later, in 2008. Memristors Quickly proved more useful than first thought, and two years ago they were used to build a device that functions similarly to a neuron. Research on this electronic element is ongoing and the latest development is its combination with quantum technology.


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Ultrasound for cancer

A non-invasive ultrasound-based procedure developed and tested at the University of Michigan destroys a large proportion of the rat's Tumor cells of liver cancer and aids in reducing lesions in the body Immune system in combating the further spread of the disease.


According to the researchers, destroying 50 to 75 percent of the tumor's volume meant that the rats' immune systems were able to remove the rest on its own without showing signs of recurrence or metastasis in more than 80 percent of the test animals. According to the scientists who conducted the experiments, their new method stimulates the immune system to continue fighting cancer.

 Image source: Innovationtoronto.com

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Pioneering operation to create an arteriovenous fistula

A team of doctors from the University Hospital of the Medical University of Warsaw (UCK WUM) performed an innovative procedure to create an arteriovenous fistula using an endovascular method. As pointed out in the university's announcement, this is the first such solution to be applied in Central and Eastern Europe. On April 12, the fistula was used to hemodialysis to be performed on the patient. The patient feels good.

The procedure was performed 2 months ago (February 15). The team consisted of radiologists, surgeons, anesthesiologists and nephrologists. The WUM specialists were supported by a world-renowned specialist in vascular and endovascular surgery, dr Tobias Steinke from the Schoen Clinic in Düsseldorf.

 Image source: University Hospital of the Medical University of Warsaw

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How heavy can a graviton be?

Scientists are trying to determine the properties of  gravitons to determine - of a hypothetical particle, the one gravitational interaction exercises in an im Journal of High Energy Astrophysics In their published work, Prof. Marek Biesiada and colleagues found a new constraint on the mass of the galaxy from an analysis of 12 galaxy clusters gravitons derived. It is seven orders of magnitude stronger than the limitations resulting from the observations of the  Gravitational waves result.

General Relativity (GRT) changed our ideas about gravity. After the ART curves matter space-time, and all objects move in this curved space-time along specific paths that geodesists be named, provided they are not influenced by other, non-gravitational interactions. Reproduced for not very large curvatures of space-time and small velocities compared to the speed of light Einstein's theory Newton's law of universal gravitation, which we still successfully use to explain the motion of planets or stars in Galaxies to describe.

We know that the other three fundamental interactions - the electromagnetic interaction with long range as well as the weak and the strong interactionthat control matter at the subatomic level - are quantum mechanical in nature. In the quantum description An interaction involves the exchange of the particle (boson) that carries it. For electromagnetism, this is the photon - a light particle, a quantum of the electromagnetic wave. For the strong and the weak interaction, it is the gluons or bosons Z and W. For more than a hundred years, physicists have been trying to universal gravity in the same way and look for a quantum theory of Gravitation. In analogy to other interactions, a hypothetical gravitational carrier particle would be the so-called graviton. Because of the infinite range of gravitational interaction, which decreases with the square of distance, that would have to be Graviton - like the photon - be massless. However, these are only theoretical predictions that need to be verified experimentally.

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The most precise measurement of the mass of the W boson deviates from the standard model

After 10 years of analysis and multiple validation, researchers of the CDF collaborative project led by the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) announced that they have the most accurate measurements of the mass of the W bosons, the bearer of one of the four fundamental physical interactions. The results suggest that the standard model should be improved or extended.

We know the four basic physical interactions: Gravitation, weakness, electromagnetic and strong interaction. The w-Boson is the carrier of the weak interaction. Based on data from Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF), the scientists at Fermilab have determined the mass of the W boson with an accuracy of 0,01%. The measurement is twice as accurate as before. Once established, scientists used the new value to test the standard model.

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Will humans also benefit from darkfield CT?

German researchers have developed a device that hopes for the use of the so-called Dark field computed tomography (CT) in clinical application on humans. If dark field could be used successfully in diagnostics, CT scans would provide much more detailed information than today.

The CT used X-raysto get pictures. The device collects information about the absorption of radiation in different tissues. The data collected in this way is then analyzed by computer software, which creates readable images from it. Darkfield CT can provide additional useful information as it allows the measurement of properties of the X-rays allows that at the current tomography are not taken into account.

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A substance that can hear heartbeats

A team of researchers from MIT in the US and Nanyang University in Singapore have developed a fabric that heartbeats can recognize. The fabric looks like one Membran in a microphone and converts the sound of the heartbeat into vibrations and then into electrical signals around. To absorb these vibrations, the researchers have a flexible Faser developed which, when woven into the fabric, flexes with it.

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Artificial intelligence helps to evaluate skin allergy tests

Polish scientists have SkinLogic-Solution developed that enables more efficient skin allergy testing and more reliable results. The method uses video and thermal imaging cameras and a system that analyzes the images down to the last pixel.

The authors of the described solution are specialists from the Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology of Warsaw University of Technology, the team of Professor Jacek Stępień (Milton Essex company) and the Military Medical Institute.

The clinical tests gave very good results. The system correctly identifies up to 98% of cases, even rare ones Allergies. In addition, it is with SkinLogic possible to detect lesions with a maximum diameter of 0,3 mm.

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